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  • Pneumon 2010, 23(2):135-140
    SUMMARY. Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is the tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree. It has been reported in patients with parenchymal infiltrations and cavities in the lung and intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenopathy. The occurrence of bronchial lesions in miliary tuberculosis is most likely to be a result of hematogenous dissemination of tubercle bacilli. We report six patients with endobronchial involvement in miliary tuberculosis. Bronchoscopic examination with histopathological evidence is essential to exclude or confirm endobronchial involvement in miliary tuberculosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) may be a useful diagnostic adjunct for evaluating bronchial stenosis, but does not show the mucosal changes of endobronchial inflammation if the lesions are superficial or mild. Local steroid injection appears to be useful for the treatment of superficial mucosal lesions involving less than one quarter of the bronchial lumen, but for advanced inflammatory lesions local treatment is ineffective. Local steroid injection for the treatment of bronchial narrowing is contraindicated by the finding of significant bronchial or segmental stenosis on CT scan. The evolution of airway involvement in miliary tuberculosis indicates that hematogenous dissemination of the bacilli is the primary mechanism for endobronchial tuberculosis. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):135-140.
     
  • Pneumon 2010, 23(2):147-152
    SUMMARY. The lungs are complex 3D structuresstudied in the clinic and the laboratory using histologic or imaging sections. Although such 2D analyses of lung structure are considered “gold standards”, the information conveyed is often insufficient and does not represent the whole organ. Stereology, the mathematical approach to the analysis of 3D structures via 2D sampling and morphometry, the practical application of stereology, provide solutions to this problem, but had until recently not been systematically adoptedin pneumology. In an effort of minimizing the above-mentioned methodological problems and of standardizing the quantitative assessment of lung structure, the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society formed a task force, which recently published its findings. The task force aimed at comprehensively reviewing current stereologic methods for lung morphometry, formulating practical guidelines for using unbiased methods for basic and translational research of lung structure, and examining the extensions of stereologic methods on non-invasive imaging of lung architecture. In the statement of the task force are included useful directives with important application in the laboratory and the clinic, the most pertinent of which are discussed in the present mini-review. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):147-152.
     
  • Pneumon 2010, 23(2):160-167
    SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM). In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birth weight (LBW), perinatal mortality, premature birth and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). As these children grow up they present a variety of health problems, including respiratory illness, behaviour disturbances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and high arterial blood pressure. LBW is also associated with an increased incidence of health problems in the neonatal period. Effects have been documented of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the future fertility of male infants and the occurrence of congenital abnormalities, and a connection has been reported between daily maternal smoking in early pregnancy and infantile autism. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):160-167
     
  • Pneumon 2010, 23(2):172-175

    SUMMARY. Endobronchial chondroma is a rare benign endobronchial tumour that may lead to obstruction, infection and destruction of lung tissue. Radical resection is curative, except when the chondroma is associated with other malignant neoplasms (Carney’s triad). We describe a case of endobronchial chondroma in a young man which was successfully managed by segmentectomy. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):172-175.

     
  • Pneumon 2010, 23(2):180-183

    SUMMARY. Hydatidosis, which is caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is the most frequently encountered type of anthropozoonosis, and it has been known for centuries. Due to the traditional close association between sheep, dogs and humans, Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in many parts of the world and particularly the Mediterranean countries. The case is reported of a 68 year-old man, a farmer and non smoker, who presented with a 32 day history of haemoptysis and fever. On chest X-ray a mass was observed at the hilum of the right lung. He underwent full clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic evaluation, which was unrevealing. During right thoracotomy a right lower lobectomy was performed that included the mass. Frozen section of the mass was negative for malignancy and the final histopathological examination established the diagnosis of a ruptured pulmonary echinococcus cyst with abscess formation. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from hospital on the ninth postoperative day being treated with albendazole per os. Pulmonary echinococcosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a lung mass in patients presenting with haemoptysis, especially if there are domestic animals in their environment. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):180-183.

     
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