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  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a discrete clinical and histopathologic form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias characterized by dry cough, worsening dyspnea, progressive loss of lung volumes, and abnormal gas exchange...
  • A few years ago, the possibility of regeneration of tissues and organs was the stuff of science fiction. Today it has become a practicality and many scientists are focusing their interest on the possible applications of embryonic and adult stem cells. Autologous transplantation is a novel effective treatment for many diseases and studies are now providing evidence of the possible repair of lesions of the lung.
  • SUMMARY. INTRODUCTION: Bone metastases occur in 20% to 40% of patients with lung cancer. Recent studies (most in vitro) demonstrate an anti-proliferative effect of third-generation biphosphonates (BPs) on lung tumours which may, indirectly, have an impact on the survival. OBJECTIVES: This was a study of the effects of treatment with BPs on the course and survival of lung cancer patients with bone metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For the study 108 male patients with lung cancer (stage IV) were recruited consecutively. Of these, 55/108 patients with positive bone scan experienced bone pain and received Nitrogen BPs (NBPs), specifically zoledronic acid (ZOL), 4 mg i.v. every 21 days (Group A). The other 53 patients received no NBPs, of which 30/53 had a positive bone scan (Group B) and 23/53 a negative bone scan (Group C). All patients were treated with combination chemotherapy consisting of Docitaxel 100 mg/m2 and Carboplatin AUC = 6. RESULTS: Group A had a statistically significantly longer mean survival and time to progression than Groups B and C (p<0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of cycles of therapy with NBPs and total patient survival (p<0.01, Pearson Correlation) and time to progression (p<0.01). Regarding the pain effect in relation to baseline, no significant difference was observed between the two groups of patients (with and without NBPs) with positive bone scan (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The addition of NBPs to the treatment regime appears to increase overall survival in lung cancer patients with bone metastases. Further studies are needed to support the potential usefulness of NBPs as an independent therapeutic agent against lung cancer. Pneumon 2009; 22(1):–
  • SUMMARY. BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest immune system derangement in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS), expressed by elevation in the circulating levels of proinflammatory markers and increase in the total number of neutrophils, but there is less information on possible alterations in lymphocyte expression. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the differences between OSAS patients without comorbidities and healthy control subjects in lymphocyte subsets and in apoptosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 12 otherwise healthy OSAS patients (AHI≥5/h+symptoms) and 12 age- and body mass index (BMI)- matched, healthy control subjects (AHI<5/h) layers of mononuclear cells from were isolated from blood samples following a density gradient centrifugation with Ficoll-Histopaque. The quantification of lymphocyte subsets was carried out by whole blood multicolour flow cytometry. Spontaneous early apoptosis was also assessed by flow cytometry after simultaneous staining with Annexin V and various markers for lymphocytic subsets. Annexin V expression is a characteristic of the early apoptosis of whole blood leucocytes. RESULTS: The absolute number of Large Granular Lymphocytes (T-LGLs) was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in the healthy control subjects. Conversely, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the other lymphocyte subsets tested (CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, ΝΚ and γδ cells) showed no significant difference between patients with OSAS and healthy subjects. No difference was observed in early apoptosis of the above lymphocyte subsets between OSAS patients and control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The spontaneous apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes is not altered in OSAS patients compared to non-apnoeic individuals. However, the significant reduction of T-LGLs in the peripheral blood of OSAS patients supports the concept of immune derangement in OSAS, as such a decrease has been observed only in a few autoimmune diseases. Pneumon 2009; 22(1):–
  • SUMMARY. Bacterial infection of the pleura is an old disease that continues to have a considerable mortality, of >15%. It is more common in males, and in the presence of diabetes mellitus, malignancy and alcoholism. The bacteriology of pleural infection has been changing during the past decades. Although pleural fluid culture is the «gold standard» for the identification of microorganisms in the pleural fluid, molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have a notably higher sensitivity (75% versus 60%). Community-acquired pleural infection (CAPI) and hospital-acquired pleural infection (HAPI) have substantial differences in both their bacteriology and mortality, while the bacteriology of both differs markedly from that of pneumonia. The «Streptococcus milleri group» is the predominant isolate in CAPI, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In HAPI the most common isolates are Staphylococcus aureus, usually methicillin-resistant (MRSA), and Enterococcus spp. Given the higher incidence of CAPI compared to HAPI, «Streptococcus milleri» accounts for the greatest number of pleural infections. The «Streptococcus milleri group» consists of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The unique characteristics of these bacteria favour the production of putrifying and necrotizing infections. The most common thoracic infection due to these organisms is empyema. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics are essential components of the management of pleural infection. Knowledge of the pleural infection bacteriology is a useful adjunct in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Pneumon 2009; 22(1):–
  • SUMMARY. A large number of medicinal drugs used in cardiology have been related to a variety of side effects in the lungs. The list of such drugs has increased as new drugs have been introduced in recent years. Lung disease due to medication may appear as parenchymal disease, angeitis, or mediastinal disease. Airway injury may be caused by medication, giving rise to cough, bronchospasm, and obstructive bronchiolitis. In addition, systemic reactions such as lupus erythematosus are commonly observed in conjunction with lung injury. In this review, the side effects on the respiratory system of cardiovascular medications are described, with an emphasis on the nosological entities that are most frequently observed. Pneumon 2009; 22(1):–
  • SUMMARY. Chronic sleep deprivation, resulting from either socio-occupational habits or disorders compromising sleep, is considered to be a major cause of social, occupational and personal dysfunction, but it is also one of the most common contributing factors to mortality and physical disability. With the exception of obstructive apnoea, which accounts for the greater part of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to sleep disorders, the majority of disorders remain undetected and untreated. The coexistence of more than one sleep disorder in the same patient is not uncommon, especially in certain groups of patients, such as those with neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. In these cases, partial diagnosis is equivalent to no diagnosis. The aim of this review is to present the most common sleep disorders, other than obstructive apnoea, which independently or in combination are responsible for the majority of complaints concerning chronic sleep deprivation.t. Pneumon 2009; 22(1):–
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© 2011 PNEUMON Magazine, Hellenic Bronchologic Society.
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